Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world.Officially with 79.93 million inhabitants (Nov 2016), Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country.
Thus, from the 5th-century-) is known, and a number of Median loanwords have been recognized in the Old Persian inscriptions.
Jews have had a continuous presence in Iran since the time of Cyrus the Great of the Achaemenid Empire.
Cyrus invaded Babylon and freed the Jews from Babylonian captivity.
Iranians became major contributors to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists and thinkers.
After two centuries, a period of various Iranian dynasties began, although these dynasties were later conquered by Turks and then the Mongols.